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Hormone Blood Analysis (Thyroid)

Hormone Blood Analysis

Hormones are an important element in our body, regulating most bodily functions. Hormones help to regulate heart rate, body temperature, metabolism and appetite, general growth and development, reproductive cycles and sexual function, sleep cycles, mood, and stress levels.

 

The most common tested hormones in blood are for the function of different glands in your body.

  • Thyroid Hormones Test
  • Sexual Hormones
  • Women Health Hormones
  • Men Health Hormones
  • Pituitary Hormones Tests
  • More specific test including parathormone, suprarenal hormones might require referral to Endocrinology Specialist Consultant

Thyroid Hormones

Thyroid Hormones are produced by thyroid gland, which is a tiny gland found in the front of your neck. responsible for a number of metabolic functions that helps regulate bodily functions like your mood, energy level, and overall metabolism.

 

Blood test for thyroid call Thyroid Profile

Thyroid Profile 1- PROFILE I

From £69 – Turnaround time: 4-6 Hours

  • Free T3
  • Free T4
  • TSH

Thyroid Profile 2 - PROFILE II 

From £99 – Turnaround time:  2 Days

  • Free T3
  • Free T4
  • TSH
  • Thyroid Antibodies (TPO Ab, TG Ab)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH

The TSH is a hormone manufactured in the pituitary gland (found in the brain). Its role is to stimulate thyroxine production in the thyroid gland. A high level within a health screening is associated with an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and a low level is found if the thyroid gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism). Changes in the TSH level alone can indicate underlying thyroid problems even if the thyroxine levels are normal.

 

Free Thyroxine (FT4)

FT4 is the active form of thyroxine, released from the thyroid gland in the neck. Its role is to control metabolism and release energy from the cells of the whole body. A lack of thyroxine leads to tiredness and weight gain, whereas an excess will lead to weight loss, rapid heart rate (arrhythmia) and anxiety. It is generally believed that the level of FT4 is the most reliable indicator of thyroid status. This is part of the diagnostic approach to know whether your gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism) or underactive (hypothyroidism) and consider the appropriate treatment.

 

Free Triiodothyronine (FT3)

Along with FT4, indicates the function of thyroid and regulates your heart rate and body temperature.

 

Normal Levels:

  • T3: 100–200 ng/dL
  • T4: 5.0–12.0 ÎĽg/dL
  • TSH: 0.4–4.0 mIU/L

Abnormal levels of these hormones can indicate numerous conditions, such as low protein levels, thyroid growth disorders, and abnormal levels of testosterone or oestrogen.

Sex Hormones

Testosterone Profile

From ÂŁ109 – Turnaround time: 4 hours

  • Testosterone
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
  • Free Androgen Index (FAI)
 

Male Infertility profile

From ÂŁ129 – Turnaround time: 4 hours

  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Testosterone
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
  • Prolactin (PRL)

Andropause Profile

From ÂŁ149 –  Turnaround time: 4 hours

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S)
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Testosterone
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
 

Male Hormonal Health

Testosterone plays a vital role for energy production through the effect on red blood cell. It also helps maintain your mood, muscle and bone strength, sex drive, and fertility.

Testosterone has two forms bound and unbound with proteins. The testosterone that is attached to protein in your blood, cannot be used easily but unbound is readily available to be used. Naturally, testosterone levels drop with age, as also because of liver disease and weight gain. Abnormal levels of sexual hormones can affect men, and it can cause general tiredness, gain weight, mood changes, feel depressed and have low self-esteem, low sex drive or erectile dysfunction and infertility. Females also produce testosterone, but testosterone production in males is much higher amounts. Although, females might experience similar symptoms, as well as irregular periods.

With hormone blood tests, you can measure your hormone levels, which can help you known if there are any problems and identify the root cause of these conditions.

Even if the hormone levels are marginally out of limits, they can still cause hormonal imbalance. Common conditions relate to hormonal imbalance are reduced muscle mass, hair loss, reduced sex drive, reduced body hair growth, overdevelopment of breast tissue and osteoporosis.

 

Male Menopause – Andropause

Andropause is an age-related drop in testosterone hormone production, and usually appears in mid-life.  Testosterone levels can decrease by 40% in mid-forties. In addition, as man ages, lifestyle changes such as excessive stress, weight gain and lack of exercise can lower levels even further, having negative impact in stamina and sexual drive.

The hormonal changes that usually occurs during andropause described below.

 

Low Testosterone

Leads to decreased stamina and libido, fatigue & erectile dysfunction.

 

High Oestrogen

Results in weight gain, increased chest and belly fat, hot flashes, night sweats & excessive need to urinate due to enlarge prostate (BPH)

 

High Cortisol

Results in insomnia, anxiety, sugar cravings, feeling tired but wired & increased belly fat.

 

Low Cortisol

Causes chronic fatigue, low energy, food and sugar cravings, poor exercise tolerance or recovery & low immune reserves.

 

Thyroid Imbalance

This condition is commonly missed in men and may often mimic symptoms of low testosterone.

 

Cardiometabolic Issues

This includes high blood pressure and diabetes and may mimic some symptoms of low testosterone – like fatigue or erectile dysfunction.

 

High DHT

Results in excessive need to urinate (BPH), hair loss and acne.

Female Hormones

Amenorrhea Profile

From ÂŁ109 – Turnaround time: 4 hours

  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Prolactin (PRL)

Women Infertility Profile

From ÂŁ129 – Turnaround time: 4 hours

  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Progesterone PRG
  • Prolactin (PRL)

Menopause

From ÂŁ109 – Turnaround time: 4 hours

  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (POS)

From ÂŁ169 – Turnaround time: 1-5 days

  • Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c)
  • Glucose
  • Antimullerian Hormone (AMH)
  • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Free Thyroxine (FT4)
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Cortisol
  • Insulin
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S)
  • Testosterone
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
  • Androstenedione
  • Cholesterol Total
  • Triglycerides
  • HDL – Cholesterol
  • LDL – Cholesterol
  • Prolactin (PRL)
  • Free Androgen Index (FAI)
  • 17-OH Progesterone (17-OH PRG)

Symptoms related with Hormonal Imbalance in Women include: 

Having too much or too little of a particular hormone in the body can cause hormonal imbalance.  

  • Decreased stamina and burned out feeling
  • Hot flashes, decreased sweating, feeling cold.
  • Poor concentration, memory problems and forgetfulness dizziness and overall mental fatigue
  • Headaches, anxiety and depression, mood swings (stress, aggressive irritable, tearful)
  • Sleep disturbances (difficulty sleeping and morning fatigue)
  • Allergies, sensitivity to chemicals, 
  • High cholesterol and elevated triglyceride
  • Fibrocystic breasts or even breast cancer
  • Decreased urine flow but increased urinary urges leading to incontinence
  • Bone Loss, decreased muscle size, decreased flexibility.
  • Swelling or puffy eyes and face, breaking or brittle nails
  • Rapid or slow heartbeat (palpitations), low blood sugar, high blood pressure 
  • Hair loss, oily skin, or hair, increase facial or body hair, acne, thinning skin,
  • Decreased muscle size, neck or back pain
  • Increased joint pain and aches, numbness on feet or hands
  • Sugar alcohol and food cravings
  • Decreased libido and vaginal dryness
  • Hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in Ears
  • Weight gain (breast, hips, waist, and belly fat)
  • Rapid ageing, infertility Problems, goitre (thyroid problems)

 

Female Hormones Testes

Estradiol (E) and progesterone (PRG) are the most important women’s hormones, and their levels and ratio are used as an index of estrogen/progesterone balance. Higher estradiol than progesterone, is responsible for symptoms during reproductive age of endometrial hyperplasia, pre-menstrual syndrome, fibrocystic breasts, and uterine fibroids. In older women using estrogen supplements alone, a relative deficiency in progesterone can also result in symptoms of estrogen excess, which include weight gain in the hips and thighs, fibrocystic and tender breasts, uterine fibroids, irritability, water retention, and thyroid problems. With the onset of menopause, when ovarian estrogen and progesterone production declines, new symptoms can occur due to low estradiol levels, such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, sleep disturbances, foggy thinking, more rapid skin aging, and bone loss. In conclusion, at any age is essential for women’s optimal health the maintenance of appropriate estradiol levels balanced with progesterone,

Testosterone in excess, often caused by ovarian cysts, leads to conditions such as excessive facial and body hair, acne, and oily skin and hair. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is thought to be caused, in part, by insulin resistance. On the other hand, too little testosterone is often caused by excessive stress, medications, contraceptives, and surgical removal of the ovaries leading to symptoms of androgen hormone deficiency including loss of libido, thinning skin, vaginal dryness, loss of bone and muscle mass, depression, and memory lapses.

 

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced by the liver in response to exposure to any type of estrogen. Oestrogen excess can be ue to increase production, increased consumption from oral estrogen contraceptives, or food and herbs (phytoestrogens). SHBG is released into the bloodstream, and binds tightly to circulating estradiol and testosterone, reducing their metabolism and clearance but also limiting their availability to tissues.

 

Cortisol is an indicator of adrenal function and exposure to stressors. Under normal circumstances, adrenal cortisol production shows a variation during the day, with highest levels early in the morning, soon after waking, falling to lower levels in the evening. Normal cortisol production shows a healthy ability to respond to stress. Low cortisol levels can indicate a reduced ability to respond to stressors (adrenal fatigue) and can leave the body more vulnerable to poor blood sugar regulation and immune system dysfunction. Persistent high cortisol lead to constant exposure to stressors, which increase the risk of  long-term health problems such as osteoporosis, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Free T4, free T3, TSH, and TPO tests can indicate the presence of an imbalance in thyroid function, which can cause a wide variety of symptoms, including feeling cold all the time, low stamina, fatigue (particularly in the evening), depression, low sex drive, weight gain, and high cholesterol. Thyroid deficiency can also be a cause of infertility, which is why these tests are included in the Female Fertility Profiles.

LH and FSH are the typic female hormones which control the majority of women’s health changes. Luteinising Hormone (LH) is responsible an Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) is the pituitary controlling hormone are included in the female Fertility Profile. Increased FSH could indicate presence of ovarian insufficiency (elevated FSH) or PCOS (elevated LH/FSH).

Menopause

The menopause is a gradual decline in hormone production that ends female fertility period (reproductive age). During menopause, woman’s oestrogen and progesterone levels fall extremely low, leading to a lack of menstrual periods.

By definition, a woman is considered in menopause when for a period of 12 months does not have menstrual cycles.

The right balance of hormones is vital for woman’s health, and the significant hormone imbalance during menopause can cause deficiency of one hormone and a relative excess of another.

Higher Estrogen or Low Progesterone

Results in mood swings, migraines, weight gain predominantly in hips and thighs.

Low Estrogen

Triggers hot flashes, night sweats, palpitations, confused thinking, memory loss problems and vaginal dryness.

Low Testosterone or DHEA

Leads to decreases in bone or muscle mass, metabolism, energy, strength, stamina, exercise tolerance & libido.

High Cortisol

Results in insomnia, anxiety, sugar cravings, feeling tired but wired & increased belly fat.

Low Cortisol

Causes chronic fatigue, low energy, food and sugar cravings, poor exercise tolerance or recovery & low immune reserves.

Neurotransmitter Imbalance

Neurotransmitters like serotonin, and noradrenaline are responsible for the good nerve function. Estrogen and progesterone levels can affect neurotransmitter levels.

Thyroid Imbalance

Changes in estrogen levels can cause slow metabolism that led women to constantly feeling cold. This is a thyroid hypoactivity (hypothyroidism) that is commonly diagnosed during menopause.

Low Vitamin D

Sufficient levels of Vitamin D are important for maintaining bone health during menopause, The bone health is also linked to the levels of estrogen and testosterone.

 

 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

 

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal abnormalities in women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of infertility.

The underlying cause is not clear, although PCOS is characterised by an excess production of androgens (usually testosterone) and lack of ovulation.

There are certain tests necessary to rule out other causes of anovulation and infertility. Though the hormone tests requested help determine whether PCOS is the reason for the hormone overproduction or a tumour (adrenal or ovarian), or overgrowth of adrenal tissue (adrenal hyperplasia).

 

 

Diagnostic Changes in Laboratory Tests

  • FSH(Follicle Stimulating Hormone), may be normal or low with PCOS
  • LH(Lutenizing Hormone), may be elevated
  • LH/FSH ratio. This ratio is normally about 1:1 in premenopausal women, but a ratio of greater than 2:1 or 3:1 may provide supporting evidence for a diagnosis of PCOS
  • Prolactinmay be normal or mildly elevated.
  • Testosterone, usually elevated
  • DHEAS(may be measured to rule out a virilising adrenal tumour in women with rapidly advancing hirsutism), frequently mildly elevated with PCOS
  • Oestrogens, may be normal or elevated
  • Sex hormone binding globulin, may be reduced
  • Androstenedione, may be elevated
  • Anti-MĂĽllerian Hormoneis a relatively new test used by some centres and has been found to be increased 2-3 times in PCOS. At present, this test is not routinely used in the investigation of PCOS in the UK, although this could change as a result of ongoing research.
  • hCG(Human chorionic gonadotropin), used to check for pregnancy, negative
  • Lipid profile, (collected after a fast), (low HDL, high LDL, and cholesterol, elevated triglycerides)
  • Glucose, fasting and/or a glucose tolerance test, may be elevated
  • HbA1cmay be elevated
  • Insulin, (collected after a fast), often elevated
  • TSH(Thyroid stimulating hormone) some women who have PCOS are also hypothyroid
  • Cortisolto rule out Cushing’s syndrome
  • 17-hydroxyprogesteroneto exclude adrenal hyperplasia
  • Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)to exclude acromegaly

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